On radiocarbon dating

Diagram of secondary growth in a tree showing idealised vertical and horizontal sections.

A new layer of wood is added in each growing season, thickening the stem, existing branches and roots, to form a growth ring.

A fully anchored and cross-matched oak and pine chronology in central Europe extends back 12,460 years, Timber core samples are sampled and used to measure the width of annual growth rings; by taking samples from different sites within a particular region, researchers can build a comprehensive historical sequence.

The techniques of dendrochronology are more consistent in areas where trees grew in marginal conditions such as aridity or semi-aridity where the ring growth is more sensitive to the environment, rather than in humid areas where tree-ring growth is more uniform (complacent).

Direct reading of tree ring chronologies is a learned science, for several reasons.

First, contrary to the single ring per year paradigm, alternating poor and favorable conditions, such as mid-summer droughts, can result in several rings forming in a given year.

For instance, missing rings are rare in oak and elm trees.Hence, for the entire period of a tree's life, a year-by-year record or ring pattern is formed that reflects the age of the tree and the climatic conditions in which the tree grew.Adequate moisture and a long growing season result in a wide ring, while a drought year may result in a very narrow one.Cross-dating was originally done by visual inspection; more recently, computers have been harnessed to do the task, applying statistical techniques to assess the matching.

To eliminate individual variations in tree-ring growth, dendrochronologists take the smoothed average of the tree-ring widths of multiple tree samples to build up a ring history, a process termed replication.

Growth rings, also referred to as tree rings or annual rings, can be seen in a horizontal cross section cut through the trunk of a tree.

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